Thebes: West Bank and The Valley of the Kings and Queens.
Today it's called Luxor but in Ancient Egypt it was Thebes divided between the east bank and the west bank of the Nile. On the east bank were located the city, the Temple of Karnak and the Temple of Luxor. In ancient times you had to cross the river to the west bank by boat. The west bank is desert and mountains and it was the direction the setting sun took before it journeyed through the Underworld. For the anciet Egyptians, the westward crossing was not so much a journey to the shores of the Dead but more the voyage to the land of Life. The west was the direction the deceasd would go to be admitted to the Day of Judgement by Osiris.
Jan 12, 2004
Clearly this stone is not native to this limestone region. Each one is about 6 stories high (18 meters) and weight about 1,300 tons each. The temple fell as a result of an earthquake in 27 B.C. and the Colossi cracked from their shoulders to the hips.
Jan 13, 2004
To say it was hot in the Valley of the Queens and Valley of the Kings would be an understatement. It was at least 100 degrees and this was late October. You can imagine what it was like digging these tombs in the middle of the summer. The Valley of the Queens and Valley of the Queens are separated by several miles of desert but other than that they look alike. Not much landscape at all - they just look like old river valleys coming down from the mountains on the west bank of Thebes.
The tombs were dug down into the limestone so you would walk down a long, but not steep nor narrow, tunnel until you entered the tomb itself. The area is hot and the air is dry and that is the reason why the paintings on the walls have lasted all these years. In order to prevent destruction of the paintings the government limits the number of tombs that are open at any one time in order to prevent the humidity from the touriests' bodies from causing destruction. Photographs are also strictly prohibited.
One of the tombs we visited was that of Prince Amenhikhopeshef, a son of Ramses III. You can see the son in the middle with the haircut like the one Yul Brenner wore when he was only a Prince in the movie "Moses". The bald head with a lock on one side was the sign that you were looking at a prince. Here the prince is shown being accompanied by his father, Ramses III, in the offering ceremony and being presented to the gods. To the right is Thoth. The entire tomb was painted with vivid colors of scenes where a loving Pharaoh god is shown walking with his dead son and introducing him to the gods. Of course the Pharaoh could do this because he was also a god. Take a close look at the beard on Ramses. Note it is straight - this tells us that Ramses is still alive when his son died. If the Pharaoh is dead then the beard is depicted as having a small curve at the bottom. Oh, so much to learn and so little time.
Jan 14, 2004
After leaving the Valley of the Queens we traveled by bus to the infamous Valley of the Kings. It is hot and it is huge but worth every drop of sweat. Cost of the ticket is 30 L.E. ($5.70) and that allowed us to enter three tombs. How is one suppose to choose? It is a long up hill walk from the entrance (right of photo) to the tombs.
Here is a photo I took in the Cairo Museum without a flash.
(photo copied from my Art and History of Egypt book)
Everything in rooms 1, 2, 4, and most of three are now in the Egyptian museum in Cairo. We walked down the entrance ramp (1) into the now empty room (2) and then to our right we saw:
This is one of the few tombs were they have left the mummy in the sarcophagus. It even has one of the gold masks covering the mummy as it was found. The mask I showed in an earlier picture was one of three covering King Tut's head. Two are in the Cairo museum and one is still in this tomb. One can only guess at the riches which must have been buried with thee important Pharaohs like Rameses. Their tombs are massive in size with long corridors and many rooms.
Jan 15, 2004
The pyramids at Giza have no burial sarcophagus and no paintings on the walls. It took all their strength just to lug the huge stones up to such staggering heights. After the third pyramid was finished the focus of Egypt moved south to Thebes and the Pharaohs were buried in the Valley of the Kings. Large tombs chiseled out of solid limestone intended for the Pharaoh's last resting place. By tradition the tomb was not completed until the Pharaoh died and sometimes they were caught off guard because the Pharaoh died suddenly.
(photo of burial chamber in the tomb of Sety I from Ancient Egypt, Agnese and Re, Barnes & Noble, Inc, 2002)
Usually when you entered the tomb there was a long corridor with scenes of the Pharaoh meeting the various gods and being quizzed as to whether he was kind to widows, did he help the poor, did he take care of his people, was he honest, was he just, etc. I imagine that knowing this kind of interrogation was going to take place after he died helped keep the Pharaoh on the right track during his life. There is the traditional scene of the Pharaoh's heart being weighed and if it weighed too much he didn't go to join Osiris in the heavens.
(photo of burial chamber in the tomb of Rameses I with pink granite sarcophagus from Ancient Egypt, Agnese and Re, Barnes & Noble, Inc, 2002)
As you descended into the tomb the corridor may have several side rooms for treasures and offerings to the gods. Finally you would arrive in the burial chamber which was elaborately decorated floor to ceiling. Maybe it is good I was not allowed to take photographs in some of these tombs because I just could not have done them justice.
After fighting away the mobs of trinket salesmen, but not before buying some suitable treasures, we boarded the air conditioned bus and headed toward Luxor on the east bank.
Return to Chapter 3: Cruising Down the Nile.
Return to Chapter 2: Abu Simbel and Aswan.
Return to Chapter 1: Introduction to Egypt.
Read about my version of The Gods of Egypt and Diagram of Temples.
For more information about our travels write toBelli.